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TODO: Jobs authorship introduction

Migrating Jobs from v1 to v2

Changed in version 2.0.0

See Migrating Jobs From Nautobot v1 for more information on how to migrate your existing jobs to Nautobot v2.

Writing Jobs

Jobs may be installed in one of three ways:

  • Manually installed as files in the JOBS_ROOT path (which defaults to $NAUTOBOT_ROOT/jobs/).
    • This directory is added to Python's sys.path at runtime, so any Python modules placed in this directory will be imported in the root module namespace. For example, a job class named MyJobClass in $JOBS_ROOT/ will be loaded into Python as my_job.MyJobClass.
    • All Python modules in this directory are imported by Nautobot and all worker processes at startup. If you have a and a custom_jobs_module/ file in your JOBS_ROOT, both of these files will be imported at startup.
  • Imported from an external Git repository.
    • Git repositories are loaded into the module namespace of the GitRepository.slug value at startup. For example, if your slug value is my_git_jobs your jobs will be loaded into Python as
    • All git repositories providing jobs must include a file at the root of the repository.
    • Nautobot and all worker processes will import the git repository's jobs module at startup so a or jobs/ file must exist in the root of the repository.
  • Packaged as part of an App.
    • Jobs installed this way are part of the App's Python module and can import code from elsewhere in the App or even have dependencies on other packages, if needed, via the standard Python packaging mechanisms.

In any case, each module holds one or more Jobs (Python classes), each of which serves a specific purpose. The logic of each job can be split into a number of distinct methods, each of which performs a discrete portion of the overall job logic.

For example, we can create a module named to hold all of our jobs which pertain to devices in Nautobot. Within that module, we might define several jobs. Each job is defined as a Python class inheriting from, which provides the base functionality needed to accept user input and log activity.

Changed in version 2.0.0

All job classes must now be registered with on module import. For Apps providing jobs, the register_jobs method must called from the App's file/submodule at import time. The register_jobs method accepts one or more job classes as arguments.


Make sure you are not inheriting instead, otherwise Django will think you want to define a new database model.

from import Job, register_jobs

class CreateDevices(Job):

class DeviceConnectionsReport(Job):

class DeviceIPsReport(Job):

register_jobs(CreateDevices, DeviceConnectionsReport, DeviceIPsReport)

Each job class will implement some or all of the following components:

  • Module and class attributes, providing for default behavior, documentation and discoverability
  • a set of variables for user input via the Nautobot UI (if your job requires any user inputs)
  • a run() method, which is the only required attribute on a Job class and receives the user input values, if any

It's important to understand that jobs execute on the server asynchronously as background tasks; they log messages and report their status to the database by updating JobResult records and creating JobLogEntry records.


When actively developing a Job utilizing a development environment it's important to understand that the "automatically reload when code changes are detected" debugging functionality provided by nautobot-server runserver does not automatically restart the Celery worker process when code changes are made; therefore, it is required to restart the worker after each update to your Job source code or else it will continue to run the version of the Job code that was present when it first started.

Additionally, as of Nautobot 1.3, the Job database records corresponding to installed Jobs are not automatically refreshed when the development server auto-restarts. If you make changes to any of the class and module metadata attributes described in the following sections, the database will be refreshed to reflect these changes only after running nautobot-server migrate or nautobot-server post_upgrade (recommended) or if you manually edit a Job database record to force it to be refreshed.

Job Registration

Changed in version 2.0.0

All Job classes, including JobHookReceiver and JobButtonReceiver classes must be registered at import time using the method. This method accepts one or more job classes as arguments. You must account for how your jobs are imported when deciding where to call this method.

Registering Jobs in JOBS_ROOT or Git Repositories

Only top level module names within JOBS_ROOT are imported by Nautobot at runtime. This means that if you're using submodules, you need to ensure that your jobs are either registered in your top level or that this file imports your submodules where the jobs are registered:

from . import my_job_module
from import Job, register_jobs

class MyJob(Job):


Similarly, only the jobs module is loaded from Git repositories. If you're using submodules, you need to ensure that your jobs are either registered in the repository's jobs/ or that this file imports your submodules where the jobs are registered.

If not using submodules, you should register your job in the file where your job is defined.

Registering Jobs in an App

Apps should register jobs in the module defined in their property. This defaults to the jobs module of the App.

Module Metadata Attributes

name (Grouping)

You can define a global constant called name within a job module (the Python file which contains one or more job classes) to set the default grouping under which jobs in this module will be displayed in the Nautobot UI. If this value is not defined, the module's file name will be used. This "grouping" value may also be defined or overridden when editing Job records in the database.


In some UI elements and API endpoints, the module file name is displayed in addition to or in place of this attribute, so even if defining this attribute, you should still choose an appropriately explanatory file name as well.

Class Metadata Attributes

Job-specific attributes may be defined under a class named Meta within each job class you implement. All of these are optional, but encouraged.


This is the human-friendly name of your job, as will be displayed in the Nautobot UI. If not set, the class name will be used.


In some UI elements and API endpoints, the class name is displayed in addition to or in place of this attribute, so even if defining this attribute, you should still choose an appropriately explanatory class name as well.


An optional human-friendly description of what this job does. This can accept either plain text, Markdown-formatted text, or a limited subset of HTML. It can also be multiple lines:

class ExampleJob(Job):
    class Meta:
        description = """
            This job does a number of interesting things.

             1. It hacks the Gibson
             2. It immanentizes the eschaton
             3. It's a floor wax *and* a dessert topping

If you code a multi-line description, the first line only will be used in the description column of the jobs list, while the full description will be rendered in the job detail view, submission, approval, and results pages.


Default: False

A boolean that will mark this job as requiring approval from another user to be run. For more details on approvals, please refer to the section on scheduling and approvals.


Changed in version 2.0.0

The commit_default field was renamed to dryrun_default and the default value was changed from True to False. The commit functionality that provided an automatic rollback of database changes if the job failed was removed. The dryrun functionality was added to provide a way to bypass job approval if a job implements a DryRunVar.

Default: False

The checkbox to enable dryrun when executing a job is unchecked by default in the Nautobot UI. You can set dryrun_default to True under the Meta class if you want this option to instead be checked by default.

class MyJob(Job):
    class Meta:
        dryrun_default = True


Default: []

A list of strings (field names) representing the order your job variables should be rendered as form fields in the job submission UI. If not defined, the variables will be listed in order of their definition in the code. If variables are defined on a parent class and no field order is defined, the parent class variables will appear before the subclass variables.


Added in version 1.3.10

Default: True

Unless set to False, it prevents the job's input parameters from being saved to the database. This defaults to True so as to protect against inadvertent database exposure of input parameters that may include sensitive data such as passwords or other user credentials. Review whether each job's inputs contain any such variables before setting this to False; if a job does contain sensitive inputs, if possible you should consider whether the job could be re-implemented using Nautobot's Secrets feature as a way to ensure that the sensitive data is not directly provided as a job variable at all.

Important notes about jobs with sensitive variables:

  • Such jobs cannot be scheduled to run in the future or on a recurring schedule (as scheduled jobs must by necessity store their variables in the database for future reference).
  • Jobs with sensitive variables cannot be marked as requiring approval (as jobs pending approval must store their variables in the database until approved).


Default: False

A Boolean that if set to True prevents the job from being displayed by default in the list of Jobs in the Nautobot UI.

Since the jobs execution framework is designed to be generic, there may be several technical jobs defined by users which interact with or are invoked by external systems. In such cases, these jobs are not meant to be executed by a human and likely do not make sense to expose to end users for execution, and thus having them exposed in the UI at all is extraneous.

Important notes about hidden jobs:

  • This is merely hiding them by default from the web interface. It is NOT a security feature.
  • In the Jobs list view it is possible to filter to "Hidden: (no selection)" or even "Hidden: Yes" to list the hidden jobs.
  • All Job UI and REST API endpoints still exist for hidden jobs and can be accessed by any user who is aware of their existence.
  • Hidden jobs can still be executed through the UI or the REST API given the appropriate URL.
  • Results for hidden jobs will still appear in the Job Results list after they are run.


Added in version 1.1.0

Changed in version 2.0.0

The read_only flag no longer changes the behavior of Nautobot core and is up to the job author to decide whether their job should be considered read only.

Default: False

A boolean that can be set by the job author to indicate that the job does not make any changes to the environment. What behavior makes each job "read only" is up to the individual job author to decide. Note that user input may still be optionally collected with read-only jobs via job variables, as described below.


Added in version 1.3.0

An int or float value, in seconds, which can be used to override the default soft time limit for a job task to complete.

The celery.exceptions.SoftTimeLimitExceeded exception will be raised when this soft time limit is exceeded. The job task can catch this to clean up before the hard time limit (10 minutes by default) is reached:

from celery.exceptions import SoftTimeLimitExceeded
from import Job

class ExampleJobWithSoftTimeLimit(Job):
    class Meta:
        name = "Soft Time Limit"
        description = "Set a soft time limit of 10 seconds`"
        soft_time_limit = 10

    def run(self):
            # code which might take longer than 10 seconds to run
        except SoftTimeLimitExceeded:
            # any clean up code


Added in version 1.5.0

Default: []

A list of task queue names that the job can be routed to. An empty list will default to only allowing the user to select the default queue (default unless changed by an administrator). The first queue in the list will be used if a queue is not specified in a job run API call.


A worker must be listening on the requested queue or the job will not run. See the documentation on task queues for more information.


Added in version 1.4.0

A path relative to the job source code containing a Django template which provides additional code to customize the Job's submission form. This template should extend the existing job template, extras/job.html, otherwise the base form and functionality may not be available.

A template can provide additional JavaScript, CSS, or even display HTML. A good starting template would be:

{% extends 'extras/job.html' %}

{% block extra_styles %}
    {{ block.super }}
    <!-- Add additional CSS here. -->
{% endblock %}
{% block content %}
    {{ block.super }}
    <!-- Add additional HTML here. -->
{% endblock content %}
{% block javascript %}
    {{ block.super }}
    <!-- Add additional JavaScript here. -->
{% endblock javascript %}

Added in version 2.2.0

Added the job_form and schedule_form sub-blocks to extras/job.html, for use by Jobs that just want to override the rendered forms without replacing all of {% block content %}.

For another example checkout the template used in the Example App in the GitHub repo.


Added in version 1.3.0

An int or float value, in seconds, which can be used to override the default hard time limit (10 minutes by default) for a job task to complete.

Unlike the soft_time_limit above, no exceptions are raised when a time_limit is exceeded. The task will just terminate silently:

from import Job

class ExampleJobWithHardTimeLimit(Job):
    class Meta:
        name = "Hard Time Limit"
        description = "Set a hard time limit of 10 seconds`"
        time_limit = 10

    def run(self):
        # code which might take longer than 10 seconds to run
        # this code will fail silently if the time_limit is exceeded


If the time_limit is set to a value less than or equal to the soft_time_limit, a warning log is generated to inform the user that this job will fail silently after the time_limit as the soft_time_limit will never be reached.


Variables allow your job to accept user input via the Nautobot UI, but they are optional; if your job does not require any user input, there is no need to define any variables. Conversely, if you are making use of user input in your job, you must also implement the run() method, as it is the only entry point to your job that has visibility into the variable values provided by the user.

from import Job, StringVar, IntegerVar, ObjectVar

class CreateDevices(Job):
    var1 = StringVar(...)
    var2 = IntegerVar(...)
    var3 = ObjectVar(...)

    def run(self, var1, var2, var3):

The remainder of this section documents the various supported variable types and how to make use of them.

Default Variable Options

All job variables support the following default options:

  • default - The field's default value
  • description - A brief user-friendly description of the field
  • label - The field name to be displayed in the rendered form
  • required - Indicates whether the field is mandatory (all fields are required by default)
  • widget - The class of form widget to use (see the Django documentation)


Stores a string of characters (i.e. text). Options include:

  • min_length - Minimum number of characters
  • max_length - Maximum number of characters
  • regex - A regular expression against which the provided value must match

Note that min_length and max_length can be set to the same number to effect a fixed-length field.


Arbitrary text of any length. Renders as a multi-line text input field.


Added in version 2.1.0

Accepts JSON-formatted data of any length. Renders as a multi-line text input field. The variable passed to run() method on the job has been serialized to the appropriate Python objects.

class ExampleJSONVarJob(Job):
    var1 = JSONVar()

    def run(self, var1):
        # var1 form data equals '{"key1": "value1"}'"The value of key1 is: %s", var1["key1"])

In the above example {"key1": "value1"} is provided to the job form, on submission first the field is validated to be JSON-formatted data then is serialized and passed to the run() method as a dictionary without any need for the job developer to post-process the variable into a Python dictionary.


Stores a numeric integer. Options include:

  • min_value - Minimum value
  • max_value - Maximum value


A true/false flag. This field has no options beyond the defaults listed above.


A true/false flag with special handling for jobs that require approval. If dryrun = DryRunVar() is declared on a job class, approval may be bypassed if dryrun is set to True on job execution.


A set of choices from which the user can select one.

  • choices - A list of (value, label) tuples representing the available choices. For example:
    ('n', 'North'),
    ('s', 'South'),
    ('e', 'East'),
    ('w', 'West')

direction = ChoiceVar(choices=CHOICES)

In the example above, selecting the choice labeled "North" will submit the value n.


Similar to ChoiceVar, but allows for the selection of multiple choices.


A particular object within Nautobot. Each ObjectVar must specify a particular model, and allows the user to select one of the available instances. ObjectVar accepts several arguments, listed below.

  • model - The model class
  • display_field - The name of the REST API object field to display in the selection list (default: 'display')
  • query_params - A dictionary of REST API query parameters to use when retrieving available options (optional)
  • null_option - A label representing a "null" or empty choice (optional)

The display_field argument is useful in cases where using the display API field is not desired for referencing the object. For example, when displaying a list of IP Addresses, you might want to use the dns_name field:

device_type = ObjectVar(

Additionally, the . notation can be used to reference nested fields:

device_type = ObjectVar(
        "depth": 1

In the example above, "depth": 1 was needed to influence REST API to include details of the associated records. Another example of using the nested reference would be to access computed fields of the model:

device_type = ObjectVar(
        "include": "computed_fields"

To limit the selections available within the list, additional query parameters can be passed as the query_params dictionary. For example, to show only devices with an "active" status:

device = ObjectVar(
        'status': 'active'

Multiple values can be specified by assigning a list to the dictionary key. It is also possible to reference the value of other fields in the form by prepending a dollar sign ($) to the variable's name. The keys you can use in this dictionary are the same ones that are available in the REST API - as an example it is also possible to filter the Location ObjectVar for its location_type and tenant_group.

location_type = ObjectVar(
tenant_group = ObjectVar(
location = ObjectVar(
        "location_type": "$location_type",
        "tenant_group": "$tenant_group"


Similar to ObjectVar, but allows for the selection of multiple objects.


An uploaded file. Note that uploaded files are present in memory only for the duration of the job's execution: They will not be automatically saved for future use. The job is responsible for writing file contents to disk where necessary.


An IPv4 or IPv6 address, without a mask. Returns a netaddr.IPAddress object.


An IPv4 or IPv6 address with a mask. Returns a netaddr.IPNetwork object which includes the mask.


An IPv4 or IPv6 network with a mask. Returns a netaddr.IPNetwork object. Two attributes are available to validate the provided mask:

  • min_prefix_length - Minimum length of the mask
  • max_prefix_length - Maximum length of the mask

The run() Method

The run() method must be implemented. After the self argument, it should accept keyword arguments for any variables defined on the job:

from import Job, StringVar, IntegerVar, ObjectVar

class CreateDevices(Job):
    var1 = StringVar(...)
    var2 = IntegerVar(...)
    var3 = ObjectVar(...)

    def run(self, var1, var2, var3):

Again, defining user variables is totally optional; you may create a job with a run() method with only the self argument if no user input is needed.


When writing Jobs that create and manipulate data it is recommended to make use of the validated_save() convenience method which exists on all core models. This method saves the instance data but first enforces model validation logic. Simply calling save() on the model instance does not enforce validation automatically and may lead to bad data. See the development best practices.


The Django ORM provides methods to create/edit many objects at once, namely bulk_create() and update(). These are best avoided in most cases as they bypass a model's built-in validation and can easily lead to database corruption if not used carefully.

Removed in version 2.0.0

The NetBox backwards compatible test_*() and post_run() methods have been removed.


Changed in version 2.0.0

Messages logged from a job's logger will be stored in JobLogEntry records associated with the current JobResult.

The logger can be accessed either by using the logger property on the job class or Both will return the same logger instance. For more information on the standard Python logging module, see the Python documentation.

The logger accepts an extra kwarg that you can optionally set for the following features:

  • grouping- Replaces the active_test Job property in Nautobot v1.X
  • object - Replaces the obj kwarg in Nautobot v1.X Job logging methods
  • skip_db_logging - Log the message to the console but not to the database

If a grouping is not provided it will default to the function name that logged the message. The object will default to None.


from import Job

class MyJob(Job):
    def run(self):"This job is running!", extra={"grouping": "myjobisrunning", "object": self.job_result})

To skip writing a log entry to the database, set the skip_db_logging key in the "extra" kwarg to True when calling the log function. The output will still be written to the console.


from import Job

class MyJob(Job):
    def run(self):"This job is running!", extra={"skip_db_logging": True})

Markdown rendering is supported for log messages, as well as a limited subset of HTML.

Changed in version 1.3.4

As a security measure, the message passed to any of these methods will be passed through the nautobot.core.utils.logging.sanitize() function in an attempt to strip out information such as usernames/passwords that should not be saved to the logs. This is of course best-effort only, and Job authors should take pains to ensure that such information is not passed to the logging APIs in the first place. The set of redaction rules used by the sanitize() function can be configured as settings.SANITIZER_PATTERNS.

Changed in version 2.0.0

The Job class logging functions (example: self.log(message), self.log_success(obj=None, message=message), etc) have been removed. Also, the convenience method to mark a job as failed, log_failure(), has been removed. To replace the functionality of this method, you can log an error message with self.logger.error() and then raise an exception to fail the job. Note that it is no longer possible to manually set the job result status as failed without raising an exception in the job.

Changed in version 2.0.0

The AbortTransaction class was moved from the nautobot.utilities.exceptions module to nautobot.core.exceptions.

File Output

Added in version 2.1.0

A Job can create files that will be saved and can later be downloaded by a user. (The specifics of how and where these files are stored will depend on your system's JOB_FILE_IO_STORAGE configuration.) To do so, use the Job.create_file(filename, content) method:

from import Job

class MyJob(Job):
    def run(self):
        self.create_file("greeting.txt", "Hello world!")
        self.create_file("farewell.txt", b"Goodbye for now!")  # content can be a str or bytes

The above Job when run will create two files, "greeting.txt" and "farewell.txt", that will be made available for download from the JobResult detail view's "Additional Data" tab and via the REST API. These files will persist indefinitely, but can automatically be deleted if the JobResult itself is deleted; they can also be deleted manually by an administrator via the "File Proxies" link in the Admin UI.

The maximum size of any single created file (or in other words, the maximum number of bytes that can be passed to self.create_file()) is controlled by the JOB_CREATE_FILE_MAX_SIZE system setting. A ValueError exception will be raised if create_file() is called with an overly large content value.

Marking a Job as Failed

To mark a job as failed, raise an exception from within the run() method. The exception message will be logged to the traceback of the job result. The job result status will be set to failed. To output a job log message you can use the self.logger.error() method.

As an example, the following job will fail if the user does not put the word "Taco" in var1:

from import Job, StringVar

class MyJob(Job):
    var1 = StringVar(...)

    def run(self, var1):
        if var1 != "Taco":
            self.logger.error("var1 must be 'Taco'")
            raise Exception("Argument input validation failed.")

Accessing User and Job Result

Changed in version 2.0.0

The request property has been changed to a Celery request instead of a Django web request and no longer includes the information from the web request that initiated the Job. The user object is now available as self.user instead of self.request.user.

The user that initiated the job and the job result associated to the job can be accessed through properties on the job class:

username = self.user.username
job_result_id ="Job %s initiated by user %s is running.", job_result_id, username)

Reading Data from Files

The Job class provides two convenience methods for reading data from files:

  • load_yaml
  • load_json

These two methods will load data in YAML or JSON format, respectively, from files within the local path (i.e. JOBS_ROOT/).

Testing Jobs

Jobs are Python code and can be tested as such, usually via Django unit-test features. That said, there are a few useful tricks specific to testing Jobs.

While individual methods within your Job can and should be tested in isolation, you'll likely also want to test the entire execution of the Job.

Added in version 1.3.3

Entire Job execution testing was only introduced in 1.3.3 and newer. However the import paths used in the examples requires 1.5.2 and newer.

The simplest way to test the entire execution of Jobs is via calling the nautobot.apps.testing.run_job_for_testing() method, which is a helper wrapper around the JobResult.enqueue_job function used to execute a Job via Nautobot's Celery worker process.

Because of the way run_job_for_testing and more specifically Celery tasks work, which is somewhat complex behind the scenes, you need to inherit from nautobot.apps.testing.TransactionTestCase instead of django.test.TestCase (Refer to the Django documentation if you're interested in the differences between these classes - TransactionTestCase from Nautobot is a small wrapper around Django's TransactionTestCase).

When using TransactionTestCase (whether from Django or from Nautobot) each tests runs on a completely empty database. Furthermore, Nautobot requires new jobs to be enabled before they can run. Therefore, we need to make sure the job is enabled before each run which run_job_for_testing handles for us.

A simple example of a Job test case might look like the following:

from nautobot.apps.testing import run_job_for_testing, TransactionTestCase
from nautobot.extras.models import Job, JobLogEntry

class MyJobTestCase(TransactionTestCase):
    def test_my_job(self):
        # Testing of Job "MyJob" in file "" in $JOBS_ROOT
        job = Job.objects.get(job_class_name="MyJob", module_name="my_job_file", source="local")
        # or, job = Job.objects.get_for_class_path("local/my_job_file/MyJob")
        job_result = run_job_for_testing(job, var1="abc", var2=123)

        # Inspect the logs created by running the job
        log_entries = JobLogEntry.objects.filter(job_result=job_result)
        for log_entry in log_entries:
            self.assertEqual(log_entry.message, "...")


For more advanced examples refer to the Nautobot source code, specifically nautobot/extras/tests/

Debugging job performance

Added in version 1.5.17

Debugging the performance of Nautobot jobs can be tricky, because they are executed in the worker context. In order to gain extra visibility, cProfile can be used to profile the job execution.

The 'profile' form field on jobs is automatically available when the DEBUG settings is True. When you select that checkbox, a profiling report in the pstats format will be written to the file system of the environment where the job runs. Normally, this is on the file system of the worker process, but if you are using the nautobot-server runjob command with --local, it will end up in the file system of the web application itself. The path of the written file will be logged in the job.


If you need to run this in an environment where DEBUG is False, you have the option of using nautobot-server runjob with the --profile flag. According to the docs, cProfile should have minimal impact on the performance of the job; still, proceed with caution when using this in a production environment.

Reading profiling reports

A full description on how to deal with the output of cProfile can be found in the Instant User's Manual, but here is something to get you started:

import pstats
job_result_uuid = "66b70231-002f-412b-8cc4-1cc9609c2c9b"
stats = pstats.Stats(f"/tmp/job-result-{job_result_uuid}.pstats")

This will print the 10 functions that the job execution spent the most time in - adapt this to your needs!

Example Jobs

Creating objects for a planned location

This job prompts the user for three variables:

  • The name of the new location
  • The device model (a filtered list of defined device types)
  • The number of access switches to create

These variables are presented as a web form to be completed by the user. Once submitted, the job's run() method is called to create the appropriate objects, and it returns simple CSV output to the user summarizing the created objects.

from django.contrib.contenttypes.models import ContentType

from import Job, StringVar, IntegerVar, ObjectVar
from nautobot.dcim.models import Location, LocationType, Device, Manufacturer, DeviceType
from nautobot.extras.models import Status, Role

class NewBranch(Job):
    class Meta:
        name = "New Branch"
        description = "Provision a new branch location"
        field_order = ["location_name", "switch_count", "switch_model"]

    location_name = StringVar(description="Name of the new location")
    switch_count = IntegerVar(description="Number of access switches to create")
    manufacturer = ObjectVar(model=Manufacturer, required=False)
    switch_model = ObjectVar(
        description="Access switch model", model=DeviceType, query_params={"manufacturer_id": "$manufacturer"}

    def run(self, location_name, switch_count, switch_model):
        STATUS_PLANNED = Status.objects.get(name="Planned")

        # Create the new location
        root_type = LocationType.objects.get_or_create(name="Campus")
        location = Location(
        location.validated_save()"Created new location", extra={"object": location})

        # Create access switches
        device_ct = ContentType.objects.get_for_model(Device)
        switch_role = Role.objects.get(name="Access Switch")
        for i in range(1, switch_count + 1):
            switch = Device(
  "Created new switch", extra={"object": switch})

        # Generate a CSV table of new devices
        output = ["name,make,model"]
        for switch in Device.objects.filter(location=location):
            attrs = [,, switch.device_type.model]

        return "\n".join(output)

Device validation

A job to perform various validation of Device data in Nautobot. As this job does not require any user input, it does not define any variables, nor does it implement a run() method.

from import Job
from nautobot.dcim.models import ConsolePort, Device, PowerPort
from nautobot.extras.models import Status

class DeviceConnectionsReport(Job):
    description = "Validate the minimum physical connections for each device"

    def test_console_connection(self):
        STATUS_ACTIVE = Status.objects.get(name='Active')

        # Check that every console port for every active device has a connection defined.
        for console_port in ConsolePort.objects.select_related('device').filter(device__status=STATUS_ACTIVE):
            if console_port.connected_endpoint is None:
                    "No console connection defined for %s",
                    extra={"object": console_port.device},
            elif not console_port.connection_status:
                    "Console connection for %s marked as planned",
                    extra={"object": console_port.device},
                    "Console port %s has a connection defined",
                    extra={"object": console_port.device},

    def test_power_connections(self):
        STATUS_ACTIVE = Status.objects.get(name='Active')

        # Check that every active device has at least two connected power supplies.
        for device in Device.objects.filter(status=STATUS_ACTIVE):
            connected_ports = 0
            for power_port in PowerPort.objects.filter(device=device):
                if power_port.connected_endpoint is not None:
                    connected_ports += 1
                    if not power_port.connection_status:
                            "Power connection for %s marked as planned",
                            extra={"object": device},
            if connected_ports < 2:
                    "%s connected power supplies found (2 needed)",
                    extra={"object": device},
      "At least two connected power supplies found", extra={"object": device})

Job Button Receivers

Job Buttons are only able to initiate a specific type of job called a Job Button Receiver. These are jobs that subclass the class. Job Button Receivers are similar to normal jobs except they are hard coded to accept only object_pk and object_model_name variables. Job Button Receivers are hidden from the jobs listing UI by default but otherwise function similarly to other jobs. The JobButtonReceiver class only implements one method called receive_job_button.


Job Button Receivers still need to be enabled through the web UI before they can be used just like other Jobs.

The receive_job_button() Method

All JobButtonReceiver subclasses must implement a receive_job_button() method. This method accepts only one argument:

  1. obj - An instance of the object where the button was pressed

Example Job Button Receiver

from import JobButtonReceiver

class ExampleSimpleJobButtonReceiver(JobButtonReceiver):
    class Meta:
        name = "Example Simple Job Button Receiver"

    def receive_job_button(self, obj):"Running Job Button Receiver.", extra={"object": obj})
        # Add job logic here

Job Buttons for Multiple Types

Since Job Buttons can be associated to multiple object types, it would be trivial to create a Job that can change what it runs based on the object type.

from import JobButtonReceiver
from nautobot.dcim.models import Device, Location

class ExampleComplexJobButtonReceiver(JobButtonReceiver):
    class Meta:
        name = "Example Complex Job Button Receiver"

    def _run_location_job(self, obj):"Running Location Job Button Receiver.", extra={"object": obj})
        # Run Location Job function

    def _run_device_job(self, obj):"Running Device Job Button Receiver.", extra={"object": obj})
        # Run Device Job function

    def receive_job_button(self, obj):
        user = self.user
        if isinstance(obj, Location):
            if not user.has_perm("dcim.add_location"):
                self.logger.error("User '%s' does not have permission to add a Location.", user, extra={"object": obj})
                raise Exception("User does not have permission to add a Location.")
        elif isinstance(obj, Device):
            if not user.has_perm("dcim.add_device"):
                self.logger.error("User '%s' does not have permission to add a Device.", user, extra={"object": obj})
                raise Exception("User does not have permission to add a Device.")
            self.logger.error("Unable to run Job Button for type %s.", type(obj).__name__, extra={"object": obj})
            raise Exception("Job button called on unsupported object type.")

Job Hook Receivers

Job Hooks are only able to initiate a specific type of job called a Job Hook Receiver. These are jobs that subclass the class. Job hook receivers are similar to normal jobs except they are hard coded to accept only an object_change variable. Job Hook Receivers are hidden from the jobs listing UI by default but otherwise function similarly to other jobs. The JobHookReceiver class only implements one method called receive_job_hook.


Requiring approval for execution of Job Hooks by setting the Meta.approval_required attribute to True on your JobHookReceiver subclass is not supported. The value of this attribute will be ignored. Support for requiring approval of Job Hooks will be added in a future release.


To prevent negatively impacting system performance through an infinite loop, a change that was made by a JobHookReceiver job will not trigger another JobHookReceiver job to run.

Example Job Hook Receiver

from import JobHookReceiver
from nautobot.extras.choices import ObjectChangeActionChoices

class ExampleJobHookReceiver(JobHookReceiver):
    def receive_job_hook(self, change, action, changed_object):
        # return on delete action
        if action == ObjectChangeActionChoices.ACTION_DELETE:

        # log diff output
        snapshots = change.get_snapshots()"DIFF: %s", snapshots['differences'])

        # validate changes to serial field
        if "serial" in snapshots["differences"]["added"]:
            old_serial = snapshots["differences"]["removed"]["serial"]
            new_serial = snapshots["differences"]["added"]["serial"]
  "%s serial has been changed from %s to %s", changed_object, old_serial, new_serial)

            # Check the new serial is valid and revert if necessary
            if not self.validate_serial(new_serial):
                changed_object.serial = old_serial
      "%s serial %s was not valid. Reverted to %s", changed_object, new_serial, old_serial)

  "Serial validation completed for %s", changed_object)

    def validate_serial(self, serial):
        # add business logic to validate serial
        return False

The receive_job_hook() Method

All JobHookReceiver subclasses must implement a receive_job_hook() method. This method accepts three arguments:

  1. change - An instance of nautobot.extras.models.ObjectChange
  2. action - A string with the action performed on the changed object ("create", "update" or "delete")
  3. changed_object - An instance of the object that was changed, or None if the object has been deleted